epgp books

Objectives of the Module


The objectives of the module are as follows:


1. To define dictionary catalogue.

2. To discuss the structure of AACR-2R and its three levels of description.

3. To define main entry, added entries and references according to AACR-2R and their structure.




Main entry, Added entry, Reference, Explanatory reference.


Structure of Module: E-Text


1. Introduction

2. Structure of AACR-2R

3. Three levels of description

4. Types of entries according to AACR-2R

5. Main entry of Dictionary catalogue

5.1 Definition

5.2 Structure

6.Added entries of Dictionary catalogue



6.2.1 Subject entry

6.2.2 Joint author entry

6.2.3 Collaborator entry Editor or compiler entry Translator entry Illustrator entry

6.2.4 Title entry

6.2.5 Series entry

7. References

7.1 Definition

1.  Introduction 

In module 11 we have studied the various types of entries of classified catalogue and their structure prepared according to CCC of Dr. S.R. Ranganathan. In this module various entries of dictionary catalogue prepared according to AACR-2R and their structure is discussed.


CCC defines dictionary catalogue as a ‘catalogue in which all the entries are word entries:


1. Consequently, a dictionary catalogue consists of one part only.

2.The entries in a dictionary catalogue are arranged alphabetically as in a dictionary.

3.In a dictionary catalogue, the main entry begins with the name of the author or a substitute for it.


AACR-1 defines dictionary catalogue as ‘a catalogue in which all the entries (author, title, subject, series etc) and their related references are arranged together in one general alphabet. Sub-arrangement frequently varies’.It is known as dictionary catalogue as the entries of this catalogue are arranged just like dictionary.


2. Structure of AACR-2R


AACR-2R published in 1986 consists of two parts. Part I deals with the provision of information describing the term being catalogued and part II deals with the determination and establishment of headings (access points) under with the descriptive information is to be represented to catalogue users and with the making of references to those headings.


Part I is further divided into 13 chapters including general rules for description of books, pamphlets and printed sheets and special material i.e. cartographic materials, manuscripts, music, soundrecordings, motition pictures and videorecordings, graphic materials, computer files, three dimensional artifacts and realia, microforms, serials and analysis. Part II is further divided into 6 chapters i.e. Chapter 21 to 26. Chapter 21 discusses choice of access points, while next 3 chapters i.e. chapter 22,23 and 24 deal with the choice and rendering of heading for person, geographic names and corporate bodies, respectively. Chapter 25 discusses rules of uniform titles while the last chapter i.e. Chapter 26 deals with the making of references. After these chapters, the code includes 4 appendices i.e. Capitalization, abbreviations, numerals and glossary respectively. At the end an index is given which help the readers to reach to the related rule easily.


3. Three Levels of Description


Cutter was the first man who included in his ‘Rules for dictionary catalogue’ rules for descriptive cataloguing for three types of libraries i.e. small, medium and large. Keeping in mind the utility of these rules, AACR-2 published in 1978 has made a similar provision of three levels of description, and AACR-2R has continued this provision.


First level of description provides the minimum information which is necessary to identify a given document. It is shown in the following schematic illustration:Title proper/first statement of responsibility, if different from main entry heading in from or number or if there is no main entry heading.-Edition statement.-Material (or type of publication) specific details.-First publisher, etc., date of publication, etc.-Extent of item.-Note(s).-Standard number.


The second level is a standard description which includes all the data which is necessary for description of documents forming part of the main collection of medium to large libraries. It is shown in the following schematic illustration:Title proper [general material designation] = Parallel title: other title information/first statement of responsibility; each subsequent statement of responsibility.-Edition statement/first statement of responsibility relating to the edition.-Material (or type of publication) specific details.-First place of publication, etc.: first publisher, etc., date of publication, etc.-Extent of item: other physical details; dimensions.- (Tile proper of series/statement of responsibility relating to series, ISSN of series; numbering within the series. Title of subseries, ISSN of subseries; numbering within subseries).- Note(s). – Standard number.


The third level provides information covering every descriptive element described in this code which are applicable to the particular item that is catalogued are to be included. The choice of level of description would depend upon the objectives of a cataloguing and requirements of a particular library. In most of the libraries the second level of description is adopted regarding it as a standard description.


4. Types of Entries according to AACR-2R AACR-2R recognizes following three types of entries:


1. Main entry

2. Added entries

3. References

The schematic illustration of these entries is given below:



5.  Main Entry of Dictionary Catalogue




While Cutter defines main entry as ‘the full or principal entry; usually the author entry’, CCC defines main entry as a ‘specific entry giving maximum information about the whole of document. All the other entries-specific or general relating to the document are normally derived from the main entry’.


According to AACR-2R the main entry is ‘the complete catalogue record of an item, presented in the form by which the entry is to be informally identified and cited. The main entry may include the tracings’.


Only one main entry is prepared for each document. In dictionary catalogue author of the book is given importance, hence main entry is prepared under the author of the book or its substitute.


5.2  Structure


In usual catalogue entry on catalogue card, their are following 8 sections (data elements) of main entry of dictionary catalogue:


1. Call Number Section

2. Heading Section

3. Title and Imprint Section

4.Physical Description and Series Note

5.Note Section

6.International Standard Book Number

7. Accession Number



Above all these sections are recorded on the front portion of the catalogue card.

However if there is no space for tracing on the front portion, it can be continued or given on the back of the main entry card, giving the word over on the right hand side of the main card. However if there is no space for transcribing any other section of main entry except tracing, the phrase Continued on next card is recorded on the righthand side of the main entry card and remaining sections are recorded on a new card/continued card.


These sections are shown in the schematic illustrations as follows:


Main Entry Card
Call Number
Section Heading section
Title   and   imprint   section……….……….…
Acc. No. .. …………………………………………………………
Physical description and series section
Note Section


The details of each section of main entry is discussed below:


1. Call Number Section: The call number consists of the class number and book number. The class number is transcribed one line above the leading line (horizontal line) after leaving one space from the left edge of the card. The book number is transcribed on the leading line after leaving one space from the left edge of the card.

2. Heading Section: The name of the author (personal/corporate body) or title etc is recorded in heading section. In case of personal author, the heading comprises the surname followed by a comma and the forename. It is transcribed on the leading line starting from first indention. In case the name of the author cannot be accommodated on the first line then it continues from the third indention. But when the book is entered under title it beings from the first indention and continuation from the second indention. In cataloguing terminology it is known as hanging indention. Heading indention will include information upto the imprint section.

3. Title with Imprint Section: This section includes information about the title, subtitle, parallel title, general material designation responsibility area, edition statement, collaborate statement and the imprint. The section starts form the second indention and continuation from the first indention. If the book includes the parallel title also, it is recorded immediately after the title proper in the order indicated by the sequence preceded by punctuation equal sign ‘=’. Subtitle is to be recorded punctuation colon ‘:’. General material designation is generally not recorded for monographs. The statement of responsibility should be preceded by a diagonal slash ‘/’. Edition area has to be preceded by the punctuation full stop, space, dash and space (.-). It is recorded after the statement of responsibility. Imprint area i.e. place of publisher, name of publisher and year of publication follows the edition area which is separated with full stop, dash, space (.-). Place of publication and publisher are separated by punctuation colon (‘:’) and publisher and year of publication is separated by punctuation comma ‘,’.

4. Physical Description and Series Note: Physical description of an item includes the number of volumes, pages, illustrative matter and the size. In cataloguing terminology it is called collation. This is recorded in a separate para starting from second indention. The preliminary pages are recorded on roman small and text pages in Indo-Arabic numerals followed by p. (indicating pages). Page number is followed by a full stop and a colon following this the information about illustration indicating by ill. and lastly the size of the book i.e. the height of the book in centimeter is recorded. The size is preceded by a semicolon. In case there is no illustrations, the size will follow the pages. This section also included the information about the series of the book, if given. Before recording the information about the series in parentheses, if is preceded by the punctuation (.-).

5.Note Section: In majority of books, this section is not required. However in multivolume, composite book and in some other books when further description of a document is necessary, the note area is rendered in a separate paragraph.

6. International Standard Book Number: If the book or periodical includes ISBN or ISSN or any other internationally agreed standard number has to be included in this area, using the agreed abbreviation and standard spacing or hyphenation.

7. Accession Number: There is no prescribed rule for recording accession number but generally it is recorded on 3rd or 4th line after leading line in margin.

8.Tracing: Tracing is the record of all the added entries to be prepared. First of all the subject heading derived from the Sears List of Subject Headings or any other standard list of subject headings are recorded after numbering in Indo-Arabic numberal as 1,2 etc. followed by other entries e.g. joint author, collaborator, title, series etc numbered in capital Roman numerals.Though punctuations are discussed in each section, however the prescribed punctuations given in second level of description should be used.Now let us study the sections of main entry and added entries through a cataloguing of a title page.





Edited by

James Elliot

(Third Edition)


Prentice Hall Pvt. Ltd., 1987

Other Information
Call No. 155.4 BIT
Acc. No. 51291
Pages xi, 217
Size 22.4 cm
Note Includes bibliography on pages 211-17. The book is fully illustrated.
HTP Prentice Hall psychology series; Number XI.
ISBN 897 254 0889

6. Added Entries of Dictionary Catalogue


6.1 Definition


Added entries provide access to other headings in addition to that of the main entry heading. Cutter defines it as ‘a secondary entry, i.e. any other than a main entry’. According to AACR-2R, added entry is ‘an entry, additional to the main entry, by which an item is represented in a catalogue; a secondary entry’. In  dictionary catalogue  prepared  according to  AACR-2R,  the  following types  of added entries are recognized:


(i) Subject Entry

(ii) Joint Author Entry

(iii) Collaborator Entry

(iv) Title Entry

(v) Series Entry


6.2  Structure


In dictionary catalogue generally unit card system is adopted. AACR-1 defines it as a ‘basic catalogue card in the form of main entry which when duplicated may be used as a unit for all other entries for that work in the catalogue by the addition of appropriate heading’. According to Ranganathan ‘in unit card system, a copy of the main entry card itself would be used as any specific added entry card, by merely inserting in the leading section the heading of the added entry’.


6.2.1 Subject Entry


In dictionary catalogue subject entries are prepared either with the help of Sears List of Subject Headings or any other list of subject headings. Maximum three subject entries can be prepared for a document.


Subject derived from the list of subject headings is transcribed in the capital letters in the line upon the leading line, strating from second indention and continuation if needed will be from the third (imaginary) indention.




BIT Bithell, Thomas C.
Rest as main entry


6.2.2 Joint Author Entry


Rule 21.30A1 prescribes to prepare added entry upto two joint authors if the book is written by two or three joint authors. This rule also prescribes that if four or more authors are involved in creating a book, make and added entry when appropriate under the heading for the one named first in the source.




155.4 Goldmith, George
BIT Bithell, Thomas C.
Rest as main entry


6.2.3 Collaborator Entry Editor or Compiler Entry


Rule 21.30B prescribes to prepare entries for collaborators given prominently manner. If the main entry is under the heading for a corporate body or under a title, make added entries under the headings for collaborating persons if there are not more than three, or under the heading for the first name of four or more. Rule 21.30D1 prescribes to ‘Make an added entry under the heading for a prominently named editor or compiler of a monographic work. Make an added entry under the headings for an editor of a serial only in the rare instance when a serial is likely to be known by the editor’s name.




155.4 Elliot, James
BIT Bithell, Thomas C.
Rest as main entry Translator Entry


Rule 21.30K1 suggests to make an added entry under the heading for a translator if the main entry is under the heading for a corporate body or under title.


If the main entry is under the heading for a person, make an added entry under the headings for a translator if:

(a) The translation is in verse.

(b) The translation is important in its own right. or

(c) The work has been translated into the same language more than once. or

(d) The wording of the chief source of information of the item being catalogued implies that the translator is the author. or

(e) The main entry heading may be difficult for catalogue users to find (e.g. as with many oriental and medieval works). Illustrator Entry


Rule 21.30K2 prescribes that make an added entry under the heading for an illustrator if:


(a) The illustrator’s name is given equal or greater prominence in the chief source of information of the item being catalogued to that of the person or corporate body named in the main entry heading. or

(b) The illustrations occupy half or more of the item. or

(c) The illustration are considered to be an important feature of the work.


6.2.4 Title Entry


Rule 21.30J1 prescribes to make an added entry under the title proper of every item entered under a personal heading, a corporate heading, or a uniform title unless:


(a) The title proper is essentially the same as the main entry heading or a reference to that heading. or

(b) The title proper has been composed by the cataloguer. or

(c) In a catalogue in which name-title and subject entries are interfiled, the title proper, is identified to a subject heading assigned to the work or a direct reference to that subject heading. or

(d) A conventional uniform title has been used as the uniform title for a musical work.



The text book of child development.
Rest as main entry


6.2.5 Series Entry


Rule 21.30L1 prescribes that make an added entry under the heading for a series for each separately catalogued work in the series if it provides a useful collocation. Optionally, add the numeric or other designation of each work in the series.


Do not make added entries under the heading for a series if:


(a) The items in a series are related to each other only by common physical characteristics. or

(b) The numbering suggests that the parts have been numbered primarily for stock control or to benefit from lower postage rates.


In case of doubt, make a series added entry.




155.4 Prentice Hall psychology series; no. 11.
BIT Bithell, Thomas C.
Rest as main entry


7. References


7.1 Definition


AACR-2R glossary defines reference as a ‘direction from one heading or entry to another. AACR-2R prescribes two kinds of references, see reference and see also reference. Rule 26.1B prescribes see reference which directs the user of a catalogue from a form of the name of a person or a corporate body or the title of a work that might reasonably be sought to the form that has been chosen as a name heading or a uniform title. Rule 26.1C prescribes see also reference which directs ‘the user from one name heading or uniform title to another that is related to it’. Rule 26.1D prescribe the Name-title reference i.e. see or see also reference from a title (or uniform title) that has been entered under a personal or corporate heading in the form of a name-title reference beginning with the personal or corporate heading followed by the title concerned. Rule 26.E1 prescribes that if a see or see also reference does not give adequate guidance to the user of the catalogue, make an explanatory reference giving more explicit guidance.


7.2 Structure


7.2.1 See Reference


In dictionary catalogue see references are prepared in two lines as illustrated below:



Further Readings


Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules. 2nd ed. 1988 revision. Ottawa: Canadian Library Association,