Resource Description and Access (RDA)

TABLE OF CONTENTS (for textual content)

 

1.  Introduction

2.  History

3.  Purpose and Scope

4.  Underlying Principles

4.1 Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR)

4.2 Functional Requirements for Authority Data (FRAD)

4.3 Statement of International Cataloguing Principles

5.  Structure of RDA

6.  Examples of RDA Entry:

7.  Conclusion:

 

e-Text

 

Resource Description & Access

 

1. Introduction

 

Resource Description and Access (RDA) is a new standard for bibliographic description. It is the successor of Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, 2nd edition (AACR2). RDA provides:

 

  •     A flexible framework for describing all resources – analog and digital
  •    Data that is readily adaptable to new and emerging database structures
  •    Data that is compatible with existing records in online library catalogues

 2.  History

 

In 1997, the Joint Steering Committee for Revision of AACR (JSC) organized the International Conference on the Principles and Future Development of AACR in Toronto to look at future directions for the Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules. Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, 2nd edition (AACR2) was published in 1978. It has been updated many times through the revision process established by the JSC. AACR2 is largely designed for an environment dominated by the card catalogue. Toronto conference identified substantive problems with AACR2. Some of the topics under consideration were FRBR, content versus carrier, internationalization, seriality etc. And it was decided that a fundamental rethinking of the code was required to respond fully to the challenges and opportunities of the digital world.

 

The JSC decided to develop a new cataloguing code called AACR3. In December 2004, JSC distributed a full first draft of Part I of the code. The public reaction and comments on the draft were surprising. Many of the cataloguers did not like to change the rules. On the other hand, many people were expecting a greater change in the cataloguing code. After reviewing the comments, the JSC decided to change their approach. It was recommended that the term ‗resource‘ to be used to express the materials in a library‘s collection or things that would be part of the greater bibliographic universe. They decided that a new standard designed for the digital environment was more appropriate. In April 2005, the JSC agreed to abandon the title Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules and took a new working title for the code i.e., RDA : Resource Description and Access.

 

3. Purpose and scope:

 

RDA provides a set of guidelines and instructions on formulating data to support resource discovery.

 

The data created using RDA to describe a resource are designed to assist users performing the following tasks:

 

                   find—i.e., to find resources that correspond to the user‘s stated search criteria

                     identify—i.e., to confirm that the resource described corresponds to the resource sought, or to                 distinguish between two or more resources with similar characteristics

select—i.e., to select a resource that is appropriate to the user‘s needs

obtain—i.e., to acquire or access the resource described.

 

These are based on the user tasks defined in Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records.

 

The data created using RDA to describe an entity associated with a resource (a person, family, corporate body, concept, etc.) are designed to assist users performing the following tasks:2

 

find—i.e., to find information on that entity and on

resources associated with the entity

identify—i.e., to confirm that the entity described

corresponds to the entity sought, or to distinguish

between two or more entities with similar names, etc.

clarify—i.e., to clarify the relationship between two or

more such entities, or to clarify the relationship between

the entity described and a name by which that entity is

known

understand—i.e., to understand why a particular name or title, or form of name or title, has been chosen as the preferred name or title for the entity.

 

These are based on the user tasks defined in  Functional Requirements for Authority Data.

 

Records.

 

RDA provides a comprehensive set of guidelines and instructions covering all types of content and media.

 

4.Underlying Principles of RDA

 

RDA is based on:

n   Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR)

 

n   Functional Requirements for Authority Data (FRAD)

 

n   Statement of International Cataloguing Principles

 

4.1 Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records (FRBR)

 

FRBR includes a conceptual model of entities and relationships and attributes; identifies specific user tasks that bibliographic records are intended to fulfill: find, identify, select, obtain; and recommends a set of elements for inclusion in national bibliographic records.

 

FRBR provides the conceptual foundation for RDA. RDA includes the FRBR terminology when appropriate (for example, use of the names of bibliographic entities: ―work‖, ―expression‖, ―manifestation‖, and ―item‖), will use the FRBR attributes as the basis for specific data elements to be included in bibliographic descriptions, will address FRBR relationships, and will use the FRBR user tasks (Find, Identify, Select, Obtain) as the basis for defining a set of mandatory data elements.

 

4.2 Functional Requirements for Authority Data (FRAD)

 

FRAD is a conceptual model to provide an analytical framework for the analysis of functional requirements for the kind of authority data that is required to support authority control and for the international sharing of authority data. The model focuses on data, regardless of how it may be packaged (e.g., in authority records).

 

The primary purpose of this conceptual model is to provide an analytical framework for the analysis of functional requirements for the kind of authority data that is required to support authority control and for the international sharing of authority data. The model focuses on data, regardless of how it may be packaged (e.g., in authority records).

 

More specifically, the conceptual model has been designed to:

  •   provide a clearly defined, structured frame of reference for relating the data that are recorded in authority records to the needs of the users of those records;
  •    assist in an assessment of the potential for international sharing and use of authority data both within the library sector and beyond.

4.3 Statement of International Cataloguing Principles

 

RDA is being developed in line with a set of objectives and principles which are based on the Statement of International Cataloguing Principles, developed by the IFLA Meetings of Experts on an International Cataloguing Code (IME ICC).

 

The Statement of International Cataloguing Principles sets the Objectives and Functions of the

Catalogue in the following terms:

 

The catalogue should be an effective and efficient instrument that enables a user:

 

1.  to find bibliographic resources in a collection as the result of a search using attributes or relationships of the resources:

 

1.1. to find a single resource

 

1.2. to find sets of resources representing

all resources belonging to the same work

all resources embodying the same expression

all resources exemplifying the same manifestation

all resources associated with a given person, family, or corporate body all resources on a given subject

all resources defined by other criteria (language, place of publication, publication date, content type, carrier type, etc.), usually as a secondary limiting of a search result;

 

2.  to identify a bibliographic resource or agent (that is, to confirm that the described entity corresponds to the entity sought or to distinguish between two or more entities with similar characteristics);

 

3.  to select a bibliographic resource that is appropriate to the user‘s needs (that is, to choose a resource that meets the user‘s requirements with respect to medium, content, carrier, etc., or to reject a resource as being inappropriate to the user‘s needs);

 

4.  to acquire or obtain access to an item described (that is, to provide information that will enable the user to acquire an item through purchase, loan, etc., or to access an item electronically through an online connection to a remote source); or to access, acquire, or obtain authority data or bibliographic data;

 

5.  to navigate within a catalogue and beyond (that is, through the logical arrangement of bibliographic and authority data and presentation of clear ways to move about, including presentation of relationships among works, expressions, manifestations, items, persons, families, corporate bodies, concepts, objects, events, and places).

 

5. Structure of RDA

 

There are two main parts of RDA:

 

A series of sections defining the attributes that may be used to describe each of the FRBR entities (Sections 1-4).

 

A series of sections defining the relationships that may be made among these entities (Sections 5-10).

 

Each section begins with a chapter of general instructions, followed by chapters for specific entities.

 

RDA consists of:

 

·         10 sections

·         With 37 chapters

·         And 12 appendices

·         Glossary

·         Index

 

Section 1: Recording attributes of manifestation and item

Chapter 1: General guidelines on recording attributes of manifestations and   items

Chapter 2: Identifying manifestations and items

Chapter 3: Describing carriers

Chapter 4: Providing acquisition and access information

 

Section 2: Recording attributes of work and expression

Chapter 5: General guidelines on recording attributes of works and expressions

Chapter 6: Identifying works and expressions

Chapter 7: Describing additional attributes of works and expressions

 

Section 3: Recording attributes of person, family, and corporate body

Chapter 8: General guidelines on recording attributes of persons, families, and corporate bodies

Chapter 9: Identifying persons

Chapter 10: Identifying families

Chapter 11: Identifying corporate bodies

 

Section 4: Recording attributes of concept, object, event, and place

 

Chapter 12: General guidelines on recording attributes of concepts, objects, events, and places

Chapter 13: Identifying concepts

Chapter 14: Identifying objects

Chapter 15: Identifying events

(Chapters 13-15 to be developed after the initial release of RDA)

Chapter 16: Identifying places

 

Section 5: Recording primary relationships between work, expression, manifestation, and item

 

Chapter 17: General guidelines on recording primary relationships between a work, expression, manifestation, and item

 

Section 6: Recording relationships to persons, families, and corporate bodies associated with a resource

 

Chapter 18: General guidelines on recording relationships to persons, families, and corporate bodies associated with a resource

Chapter 19: Persons, families, and corporate bodies associated with a work

Chapter 20: Persons, families, and corporate bodies associated with an expression

Chapter 21: Persons, families, and corporate bodies associated with a manifestation

Chapter 22: Persons, families, and corporate bodies associated with an item

 

Section 7: Recording subject relationships

 

Chapter 23: General guidelines on recording the subject of a work (To be developed after the initial release of RDA)

 

Section 8: Recording relationships between works, expressions, manifestations, and items

 

Chapter 24: General guidelines on recording relationships between works, expressions, manifestations, and items Chapter 25: Related works

Chapter 26: Related expressions

Chapter 27: Related manifestations

Chapter 28: Related items

 

Section 9: Recording relationships between persons, families, and corporate bodies

Chapter 29: General guidelines on recording relationships between persons,

families, and corporate bodies

Chapter 30: Related persons

Chapter 31: Related families

Chapter 32: Related corporate bodies

 

Section 10: Recording relationships between concepts, objects, events, and places

 

Chapter 33: General guidelines on recording relationships between concepts, objects, events, and places

Chapter 34: Related concepts

Chapter 35: Related objects

Chapter 36: Related events

Chapter 37: Related places

Chapters 33-37 to be developed after the initial release of RDA )

Appendices

RDA will contain twelve appendices:

 

Appendix A. Capitalization

Appendix B. Abbreviations

Appendix C. Initial articles

Appendix D. Record syntaxes for descriptive data

Appendix E. Record syntaxes for access point control data

Appendix F. Additional instructions on names of persons

Appendix G. Titles of nobility, terms of rank, etc.

Appendix H. Conversion of dates to the Gregorian calendar

Appendix J. Relationship designators: Relationships between a resource and persons, families, and corporate bodies associated with the resource

Appendix K. Relationship designators: Relationships between works, expressions, manifestations, and items

Appendix L. Relationship designators: Relationships between persons, families, and corporate bodies

Appendix M. Relationship designators: Relationships between concepts, objects, events, and places

 

6.    Examples of RDA Entry:

 

EXAMPLES OF FULL RDA RECORDS (JSC) – BIBLIOGRAPHIC RECORDS

 

Example of printed book

 

RDA elements

 

RDA REF RDA ELEMENT DATA RECORDED
2.3.2 Title proper The organization of information
2.4.2 Statement of responsibility relating to title proper Arlene G. Taylor
2.5.2 Designation of edition Second edition
2.8.2 Place of publication Westport, Connecticut
2.8.2 Place of publication London
2.8.4 Publisher’s name Libraries Unlimited, a member of the Greenwood Publishing Group
2.8.6 Date of publication 2004
2.12.2 Title proper of series Library and information science text series
2.13 Mode of issuance single unit
2.15 Identifier for the manifestation ISBN 1-56308-976-9
2.15 Identifier for the manifestation ISBN 1-56308-969-6 (paperback)
3.2 Media type unmediated
3.3 Carrier type volume
3.4 Extent of text xxvii, 417 pages
3.5 Dimensions 26 cm
4.3 Contact information http://www.lu.com
6.9 Content type text
7.16 Supplementary content Includes bibliography and index
17.8 Work manifested1 Taylor, Arlene G., 1941- . Organization of information
19.2 Creator Taylor, Arlene G., 1941-
18.5 Relationship designator author
25.1 Related work2 Library and information science text series
24.5 Relationship designator in series (work )

 

                                                   *SHADED ROWS INDICATE CORE ELEMENTS

 

 

 

Encoded in the MARC 21 format for bibliographic data, using ISBD punctuation MARC

 

FIELD TAG MARC FIELD INDICATORS DATA RECORDED
Leader/06 Type of record a
Leader/07 Bibliographic level m
Leader/18 Descriptive cataloguing form i
Leader/19 Multipart resource record level #
007/00 Physical description fixed field – Category of material t
008/35-37 Fixed-length data elements -Language eng
020 International Standard Book Number ## $a 1563089769
020 International Standard Book Number ## $a 1563089696 (paperback)
037 Source of acquisition ## $b http://www.lu.com
040 Cataloguing source – description conventions $e rda
100 Main entry – Personal name 1# $a Taylor, Arlene G., $d 1941- $e author
245 Title statement 14 $a The organization of information / $c Arlene G. Taylor.
250 Edition statement ## $a Second edition.
264 Production, publication, distribution, manufacture and copyright notice. #1 $a Westport, Connecticut ; $a London : $b Libraries Unlimited, a member of the Greenwood Publishing Group, $c 2004.
300 Physical description ## $a xxvii, 417 pages ; $c 26 cm.
336 Content type ## $a text $b txt $2 rdacontent
337 Media type ## $a unmediated $b n $2 rdamedia
338 Carrier type ## $a volume $b nc $2 rdacarrier
490 Series statement 1# $a Library and information science text series
504 Bibliography, etc. note ## $a Includes bibliography and index.
830 Series added entry – Uniform #0 $a Library and information science text series.

 

 

7. Conclusion:

 

RDA developers have moved far away from AACR2. RDA is not just a straight forward new version of AACR2. Hence it is not AACR3. The principles, implementation methodology and purposes of RDA are more aligned towards information technology world (viz., Relational /object-oriented database, www, resource discovery etc.).

 

Since RDA is a new standard, cataloguers will need some training on it to implement in the library. Library Science schools will also have to update their syllabi for cataloguing education. Libraries should also prepare their existing staff members to cope with the new challenges through continuing education and other means.

 

RDA is being developed for the integrated library management system, not for the card catalogues. The developed countries have already abandoned card catalogues. But the card catalogue is very much a reality in the developing countries. In spite of the tremendous growth of ICT sector in these countries, it seems that card catalogue will continue to exist for some more decades. The effect of RDA on such environment is not clear.

 

 

8. Bibliographical References:

 

1.Carlyle, Allyson (2007). Understanding FRBR as a conceptual model : FRBR and the bibliographic universe. Bulletin of the American Society of Information Science and Technology, vol. 33, no.6. (Aug./Sept. 2007). Available at: http://www.asis.org/Bulletin/Aug-07/Bulletin_AugSep07.pdf (accessed 16 Sept.2013)

2.  Coyle, Karen & Hillman, Diane (2007). Resource Description and Access (RDA): cataloging rules for the 20th century. D-Lib Magazine, vol. 13, no. 1-2. Available at: http://www.dlib.org/dlib/january07/coyle/01coyle.html (accessed 16 Sept.2013).

   3.  Functional Requirements for Bibliographic Records: Final Report, IFLA Study Group on the Functional Requirements for Bibliographic

Records (München: K.G. Saur, 1998). Available at: www.ifla.org/VII/s13/frbr/frbr.pdf (accessed 16 Sept.2013).

4.  Functional Requirements for Subject Authority Data (FRSAD): A Conceptual Model, IFLA Working Group on the Functional Requirements for Subject Authority Records (FRSAR)

.Available at http://www.ifla.org/files/assets/classification-and-indexing/functional-requirements-for-subject-authority-data/frsad-final-report.pdf (accessed 16 Sept.2013).

5.  Glennan, Kathy(2006). From AACR2 to RDA : an evolution. University of Maryland MLA, BCC Program Meeting, Feb. 26, 2006. Available at: www.musiclibraryassoc.org/BCC/Descriptive/RDA_Evolution.pdf (accessed on 29 May 2008)

6.  Gorman, Michael. RDA : the coming cataloguing debacle. Available at: www.slc.bc.ca/rda1007.pdf (accessed 16 Sept.2013).

7.  IFLA Meeting of Experts on an International Cataloguing Code . Statement of international cataloguing principles. Apr. 10, 2008 version. Available at: http://www.ifla.org/files/assets/cataloguing/icp/icp_2009-en.pdf (accessed 16 Sept.2013).

8.  Joint Steering Committee for Development of RDA. Frequently asked questions. Available at: http://www.rda-jsc.org/rdafaq.html (accessed 16 Sept.2013)

9.  Joint Steering Committee for Development of RDA. Prospectus. Available at: http://www.rda-jsc.org/rdaprospectus.html (accessed 16 Sept.2013)

10.  Joint Steering Committee for Development of RDA. RDA — Resource Description and Access : objectives and principles Available at: http://www.rda-jsc.org/docs/5rda-objectivesrev3.pdf (accessed 16 Sept.2013).

11.  Kiorgaard, D. and Kartus, E. (2005). A rose by any other name: from AACR2 to resource description and access : paper presented at the 13th Victorian Association for Library Automation Biennial Conference, Melbourne, 8-10 February, available at: www.valaconf.org/vala2006/papers2006/83_Kartus_Final.pdf (accessed 15 Jan. 2008)

12.  Oliver, C. (2010). Introducing RDA: A guide to the basics. Chicago : American Library Association