Objectives of the Module
The objectives of the module are as follows:
1. To discuss author and its various types.
2. To discuss the rules of single personal authorship of CCC and AACR-2R.
3. To discuss the rules of shared personal authorship in CCC and AACR-2R.
4. To discuss the rules of works produced under editorial direction in CCC and AACR-2R.
Author, Personal author, Single personal author, Joint personal author, Shared author, Principal author.
Structure of Module: E-Text
2. Definition of author. Its various types.
3. Personal author
3.1 Single Personal Author
3.1.1 Rules of CCC
3.1.2 Rules of AACR-2R
4. Joint Authors
4.1Rules of CCC
4.1.1 Two Personal Authors
4.1.2 Three or More Personal Authors
4.2Rules of AACR-2R
4.2.1 Principal Responsibility Indicated
220.127.116.11 Two or Three authors and Principal Responsibility Indicted
18.104.22.168 More than three authors and Principal Responsibility Indicted 4.2.2 Principal Responsibility not Indicated
22.214.171.124 Two or Three Authors and Principal Responsibility not Indicated.
126.96.36.199 More than Three authors and Principal Responsibility not Indicated.
5 Works Produced under Editorial Direction 5.1 Rules of CCC
5.2 Rules of AACR-2R
7 Further Readings
Is cannot be imagined a book without its author. However author may be given on title page or it may not be recorded on title page. Books whose author is not given on the title page is known as anonymous books. Further author of a book can be a person or a corporate body. In this module we will confine our study upto personal authorship.
2. Definition of author. Its various types CCC defines author of a work in two senses:
Sense 1: Person creating the work, that is, the thought and expression constituting it. Sense 2: Corporate body owning responsibility for a work that is, for the thought and the expression constituting it. AACR-1 defines author as „the person or corporate body chiefly responsible for the creation of intellectual or artistic content of work, e.g. the writer of a book, the compiler of a bibliography, the composer of a musical work, the artist who paints a picture, the photographer who takes a photograph‟.
On the analysis of the definitions of CCC and AACR-2 we find that both the code have recognized two types of authorship:
1. Personal authorship
2. Impersonal authorship i.e. corporate authorship.
3. Personal author
When a person in his individual capacity assumes responsibility for the creation of the idea and expression contained in a book, it is known as personal author. In AACR-2R glossary, personal author has been defined as „the person chiefly responsible for the creation of the intellectual or artistic content of a work‟. CCC defines personal author as „Person as author, the responsibility for the thought and the expression constituting the work resting solely on his private capacity and not on the capacity of any office being held by him within a corporate body, nor on the capacity of that body‟. As such when a person writes a book in his personal capacity, he is known as personal author.
Personal authorship is further divided in CCC as:
1.Single personal author
2. Joint personal author
AACR-2R divides the personal authorship as:
1. Single personal author
2. Shared responsibility
3.1 Single personal author
When the responsibility of the contents of work belongs to only one person, the work is known of single personal author.
3.1.1 Rules of CCC
CCC Rule MD1 prescribes that „the heading is to consist of the earliest of the following which the document admits 1. The name of a personal author 2. The names of joint personal author… The rendering of personal author will be as per Rule MD21 in which it is suggested to follow rules of Chapter JA as follows:
One worded name
As per Rule JA3 the rendering of a title page name consisting of one word only is to write it as it occurs in the title page:
One fully spelt out word only
As per Rule JA4 the rendering of a title page name consisting of one and only one fully spelt-out word, though preceded by initials, is to write the fully spelt out word as the entry element and to write the expansion of the initials as the secondary element.
SRIVASTAVA (A P).
Year of person
As per Rule JA5 the year of birth of the person is to be added as a further individualizing element, after the secondary element.
RANGANATHAN (S R) (1892-1972).
Multi worded name
CCC Rule JA6 prescribes that „for the rendering of a title page name consisting of two or more words, it should first be reduced to the entry name, and the entry element and the secondary element should be separated out with the aid of the definitions‟. The rendering is to consist successively of the
1. Entry element
2.Secondary element; and
3. Year(s) of the person.
Hyphenated entry element
If the elements of a compound surname is hyphenated, it is known as hyphenated entry element. Rule JA61 prescribes the following rendering:
QUILLER-COUCH (Arthur Thomas).
Two worded entry element
Names with two worded entry element will be rendered as prescribed under rule JA64.
DAS GUPTA (A K) (1915).
Three worded entry element
Names with three worded entry element will be rendered as prescribed under Rule JA65.
BASU RAY CHAUDHURI (1870-1925).
Split worded given names without surnames
Split worded given names without surnames will be rendered as prescribed under rule JA68.
ANAND PRAKASH (1945).
ABDUL KARIM (1955).
3.1.2 Rules of AACR-2R
AACR-2R Rule 21.4A1 prescribe that „enter a work, a collection of works, or selections from a work or works by one personal author under the heading for that person whether named in the item being catalogued or not‟.
Rule 22.4A prescribes that „if a person‟s name consists of several parts, select as the entry element that part of the name under which the person would normally be listed in authoritative alphabetic lists in his or her language or country of residence of activity.
This is a general rule. It creates a problem to decide the commonly known name. Structure of personal names vary from country to country. Generally European names are entered under the last part of the name which is surname.
Virginia Woolf: selections from her essays.
Main entry under the heading for Woolf.
Name without surname
AACR-2R Rule 22.4B2 prescribes that „if the entry element is the first element of the name, entry the name in direct order‟.
Entry under surname
AACR-2R Rule 22.5A1 prescribes that „Enter a name containing a surname, under that surname unless subsequent rules provide for entry under a different element. Rule 22.4B3 prescribes that „if the entry element is not the first element of the name, transpose the elements of the name preceding the entry element. Follow the entry by a comma‟.
AACR-2R Rule 22.5C2 prescribes that „enter a name containing a compound surname under the element by which the person bearing the name prefers to be entered. If this is unknown, enter the name under the element under which it is listed in reference sources in the person‟s language or country or residence or activity‟. Rule 22.5C4 prescribes „enter under the first element of the compound surname‟.
Johnson Smith, Geoffrey
Castres Saint Martin, Gaston
AACR-2R Rule 22.5C3 prescribes that „if the elements of a compound surname are regularly or occasionally hyphenated, enter under the first element‟.
AACR-2R Rule 1F1 prescribes to transcribe statements of responsibility appearing prominently in the item in the form in which they appear there. If the statement of responsibility is taken form a source other than the chief source of information, enclose it in square brackets.
Principles of auditing/by J.N. Saxena.
4. Joint Authors
CCC defines joint authors as „two or more authors, personal or corporate, sharing responsibility for the thought and expression constituting the work, the portion for which each is separately responsible nor being either specified or separable. AACR-2R defines it as „a person who collaborates with one or more other persons to produce a work in relation to which the collaborators perform the same function‟. AACR-2R also treats term shared responsibility equal to joint author and defines shared responsibility as „collaboration between two or more persons or bodies performing the same kind of activity in the creation of the content of an item. The contribution of each may form a separate and distinct part of item or the contribution of each may not be separable from that of others. As such joint personal author means author producing books collaborating by two or more personal authors and all the joint authors are responsible for the thought contents jointly and their work is not separable.
4.1 Rules of CCC
CCC divides joint personal author into following two categories from the cataloguing point of view:
1. Two personal authors
2. Three or more personal authors
4.1.1 Two Personal Authors
Two joint personal authors are rendered as per Rule MD32* which prescribes that „if the title page contains the names of two and only two joint authors, both the names are to be used as heading. The names are to be written in the sequence in which they occur on the title page with the conjunction „and‟ connecting them.
SHRIVASTAVA (S N) and VERMA (S C).
As per Rule MK111* and MK112* two Book index entries from the names of both the authors will be prepared. In first author Book index entry, the names of the authors will be rendered in the same sequence as their names appear in heading of main entry. In second author Book index entry their names will be permuted i.e. second author‟s name will come first and first author‟s name will come later.
SHRIVASTAVA (S N) and VERMA (S C). First BIE
VERMA (S C) and SHRIVASTAVA (S C). Second BIE
4.1.2 Three or more Personal Authors
CCC Rule MD33* prescribes that „if the title page contains the name of three or more joint authors, the name of the first mentioned author alone is to be used as the heading and the words „and others‟ are to be added thereafter. In this case only one author Book index entry will be prepared under the author given in the heading section of main entry.
JAIN (Suresh Chandra) and others.
4.2 Rules of AACR-2R
4.2.1 Principal Responsibility Indicated
188.8.131.52 Two or Three Authors and Principal Responsibility Indicated
AACR-2R Rule 21.6B1 prescribes that „if, in a work of shared responsibility, principal responsibility is attributed (by the wording or the layout of the chief source of information of the item being catalogued) to one person or corporate body, enter under the heading for that person or body. If the another person or corporate body appears first in the chief source of information, make an added entry under the heading for that person or body. Make added entries under the heading for other persons or bodies involved if there are not mot more than two.
Clinical Hematology by M.M. Wintrobe, G. Richardlee and DANE R. BOGGS.
Main entry heading will be under Principal author i.e. Boggs, Dane and in responsibility area names of all the three authors will be given in the sequence and two added entries will be prepared under first and second author respectively i.e. Wintrobe, M.M. and Richardlee, G.
184.108.40.206 More than Three Authors and Principal Responsibility Indicated
AACR-2R Rule 21.6B1 discussed above will also be applicable on books written by more than three authors. However as more than three authors are involved and one of the them is Principal author the main entry will be made under the Principal author and the added entry will be made under the first named author only.
Diagnostic and attainment testing: a manual of test by H. Stewart Moredock, Colin Gibson, Martin B. Davidson and FRANK HORACE JONE. In this case the fourth author is indicated at Principal author.
Main entry heading will be under Jone, Frank Horace and in responsibility area only first named author will be given and added entry will be prepared under the first named author i.e. Moredock, H. Stewart.
4.2.2 Principal Responsibility not Indicated
220.127.116.11 Two or Three Joint Authors and Principal Responsibility not Indicated
AACR-2R Rule 21.6C1 prescribes that „if responsibility is shared between two or three persons or bodies and principal responsibility is not attributed to any of them by wording or layout, enter under the heading for the one named first. Make added entries under the headings for the others.
1. Health for effective living by Edward Johns, Wilfred C. Sutton Lloyd E. Webster. Main entry under Johns, Edward and added entries under Sutton, Wilfred C. and Webster, Lloyd E will be prepared.
2. A Student‟s History of Education in India by J.P. Naik and Gyan Chand Negi.Main entry under Naik, J.P. and added entry under Negi, Gyan Chand will be prepared.
18.104.22.168 More than Three authors and Principal Responsibility not Indicated
AACR-2R Rule 21.6C2 prescribes that „if responsibility is shared among more than three persons or corporate bodies and principal responsibility is not attributed to any one, two or three, enter under title. Make an added entry under the heading for the first person or corporate body named. If the persons or bodies are not named in the item, make an added entry under the one named first in a previous edition, or, if there is no previous edition, under the one whose heading comes first in English alphabetic order. As per Rule 1.1F5 “when a single statement of responsibility names more than three persons or corporate bodies performing the same function, or with the same degree of responsibility, omit all but the first of each group of such persons or bodies. Indicate the omission by the mark of omission (…) and add et al. … in square brackets”.
Undergraduate Education in Psychology by James A. Kulik, Donald R. Brown, Bichard E. Vestwing and Jane Wright.
Main entry under title. In responsibility area only first author followed by … dot and in square brackets the word [et al.] will be written. Added entry under first author will be prepared.
5. Works Produced under Editorial Direction
In some books name of author is not given and they are edited or compiled by one or more persons. Such works are known as collections and works produced under editorial direction. In both the codes CCC and AACR-2R separate rules are prescribed for the choice and rendering of heading.
5.1 Rules of CCC
CCC Rule MD51 prescribes that „if the title page does not give the name of a personal author or the names of joint personal authors or indicate corporate authorship or give a pseudonym or pseudonyms in the author statement but contains the name of a collaborator, that name is to be used as heading and a descriptive element is to be added thereafter indicating the role of the person.
1. QUILLER-COUCH (Arthur) (1863), Ed.
2. SAXENA (A K), Comp and Tr.
3. SHARMA (B N), Comp.
CCC Rule MD52 is for many kinds of collaborators and prescribes that „if the title page gives the name of each of two or more of the kinds of collaborators enumerated in the the name belonging to one and only one kind is to be chosed as heading. The name of the one making a more important contribution than the others is to be chosed.
The Vedanta sutras with the commentary of Ramanuja translated by George Thebaut, the heading is to be RAMANUJA, Comm.
One added entry under the name of translator will be prepared.
CCC Rule MD54 is for Joint collaborators which prescribes that „if the title page gives two or more names of the category contributing to the heading … the heading is to be written on the analogy of Dec MD3 (i.e. two or three or more authors)
1. JAIN (A K) and SHARMA (B K), Ed.
2.SAXENA (Anand Prakash) and others, Ed.
5.2 Rules of AACR-2R
Works produced under editorial directions are treated in AACR-2R under Rule 21.7B1 prescribing that „enter a work falling in one of the categories given in 21.7A1 under the title if it has a collective title. Make added entries under the headings for the compilers/editors if there are not more than three and if they are named prominently in the item being catalogued. If there are more than three compilers/editors named prominently, make an added entry under the heading for the principal compiler/editor and or for the one named first.
- A Dictionary of music and musicians edited by Sir George Grove will be rendered as: Main entry under title added entry under the editor as Grove, Sir George.
- Microbiology: a guide to the laboratory diagnosis and control of infection edited by Prof. Robert Cruckshank, Dr. J.P. Duguid and Dr. R.H.A. Swain will be rendered as: Main entry under title.Added entries under each editor.
- The Oxford dictionary of quotations compiled by Dr. R.W. Chapman will be rendered as: Main entry under title and Added entry under compiler.
The CCC rules marked * (asterisk) belong to Cataloguing practice, Ed 2 by S R Ranganathan.
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- Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules, 2nd ed. 1988 revision. Ottawa: Canadian Library Association, 1988.
- Ranganathan, S.R. Classified catalogue code with additional rules for dictionary catalogue code. 5th ed. Bangalore: Sarda Ranganathan Endowment for Library Science, 1988.
- Ranganathan, S.R. Cataloguing practice. 2nd ed. Bombay: Asia Publishing House, 1974.