CORPORATE AUTHORSHIP IN CCC & AACR-2R: INSTITUTION AND ITS ORGANS

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Objectives of the Module

 

The objectives of the module are as follows:

 

1. To define institution.

2. To discuss the rules of choice of heading of institution.

3. To discuss the rules of rendering of heading of institution and its various organs.

 

Keywords

 

Institution, Society, Organization, Organ of institution.

 

Structure of the Module: E-Text

 

1. Introduction

2.Definition

3. Rules of choice of heading

3.1Rules of CCC

3.2Rules of AACR-2R

4. Rules of rendering of headings of institution and its organs.

4.1 Rules of CCC

4.2 Rules of AACR-2R

5. Questions

6.Further Readings

 

1.  Introduction

 

In  module  16,  we  have  studied  the  meaning  and  definition  of  corporate  body, corporate author and types of corporate authors. We have also studied definition of Government and its organs and the rules of choice and rendering of headings according to

 

CCC  and AACR-2R. In the present module the definition, choice and rendering of heading of second type of corporate authorship i.e. institution and its organs are discussed.

 

2.  Definition

 

Dr. S.R. Ranganathan has specifically defined institution in his CCC under Rule No. FC23 in 2 senses:

 

Sense 1: Independent or autonomous corporate body other than a government. It may be created by a government, or constituted under a statute, or formed voluntarily –either formally or informally. It has or it is intended to have continued existence or functions beyond that merely convening a conference.

 

Sense 2: Organ of an institution in sense 1 defined above.

 

AACR-2R does not provide any definition for institution. It has to be inferred from the definition of corporate body given in its glossary. Its rule numbers 21.1B1, 21.1B2, 21.4B1, 21.5A, 21.6B1, 21.6B2, 21.6C1 and 21.6C2 deal with different types of institutions. Previously in ALA code there was distinction between society and institution which was severely criticized by Dr. S.R. Ranganathan and American librarians. Now in the definition of corporate body various types enumerated are associations, institutions, business firms and non-profit enterprises. Here AACR-2R has failed to explain whether associations, business firms and non-profit enterprises are institution or not. In this regard CCC is very clear and does not give any chance of inconsistency or controversy.

 

3. Rules of Choice of Heading

 

CCC has prescribed the following rules for the choice of heading of institution:

 

Person Vs Institution

 

If the name of person as well as institution both appear on the title page of a book, it creates problem of the choice of heading. To resolve this problem following provisions are prescribed:

 

CCC Rule GC31 prescribes that ‘the work in the document is of corporate authorship, if it is a deliberative, legislative, directive, administrative or routine character limited by the purpose or function or outlook of the corporate body. The mere fact that a document is published, financed, aided, approved, sponsored, or authorized by a corporate body is not sufficient reason to deem the work in it to be of corporate authorship, and not to be of personal authorship’.

 

CCC Rule GC32 prescribes that ‘the work in the document is of personal authorship, if its primary function is the extension of the boundary of a field of knowledge or its intensification, and the responsibility for the thought and expression of it rests on the person and not on the office held by him in the corporate body, in spite of his being a paid or an honorary employee or a member of the corporate body. The mere mention of the personal name of an official of the corporate body in the place in which author’s name is usually mentioned in a book, is not sufficient reason to deem the work in it to be of personal authorship and not to be of corporate authorship’.

 

Institution Vs Government

 

CCC   Rule GD3 prescribes ‘any autonomous or even non-autonomous organization, engaged in the work of research, commerce and supply of commodities and services to the public, may have to be taken to be the institutional author for an work for whose thought and expression it is responsible. It is so even if the institution is owned and managed by the government’, e.g. National Library (India) is an organ of Ministry of Education, Government of India will be entered as:

 

Example

 

LIBRARY (National-) (India).

 

 

Institution Vs Institution

 

CCC Rule GD6 prescribes that ‘the criterion to resolve the conflict about authorship between a parent institution or one of its organs on the one side, and an autonomous affiliated institution on the other is similar to that for the conflict between a governmental organ and institution’. Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC), Bangalore is an organ of Bureau of Indian Standards. But being engaged in the research work and autonomous institution, hence Documentation Research and Training Centre will be chosed as heading.

 

3.2  Rules of AACR-2R

 

Works emanating from a corporate body

 

AACR-2R Rule 21.1B2 prescribes that ‘enter a work emanating from one or more corporate bodies under the heading for the appropriate body if it falls into one or more of the following categories:

 

(1) Those of an administrative nature dealing with the corporate body itself or its internal policies, procedures, finances, and /or operations or its officers, staff and/or membership (e.g. directories) or its resources (e.g. catalogues, inventories)’.

 

Works emanating from a single corporate body

 

AACR-2R Rule 21.4B1 prescribe to ‘enter a work, a collection of works emanating form one corporate body (or any reprint, reissue etc., of such a work) under the heading for the body’.

 

Corporate body lacking a name

 

Rule 21.5A prescribes that ‘if a work is of unknown or uncertain personal authorship or if it emanates from a body that lacks a name, enter it under title’.

 

Shared responsibility: Principal responsibility indicated

 

AACR-2R Rule 21.6B1 prescribes that ‘if, in a work of shared responsibility, principal responsibility is attributed (by the wording or the layout of the chief source of information of the item being catalogued) to one person or corporate body, enter under the heading for that person or body. If the name of another person or corporate body appears first in the chief source of information, make an added entry under the heading for that person or body. Make added entries under the headings for, other persons or bodies involved if there are not more than two’.

 

Two or Three Corporate bodies

 

Rule 21.6B2 prescribes that ‘if principal responsibility is attributed to two or three persons or bodies enter under the heading for the first named of these. Make added entries under the headings for the others. If a work is by two principal persons or corporate bodies and one collaborating person or body, make an added entry also for the third person or body’.

 

Shared Responsibility: Principal responsibility not indicated

 

AACR Rule 21.6C1 prescribes that ‘if responsibility is shared between two or three persons or bodies and principal responsibility is not attributed to any of them by wording or layout, enter under the heading for one named first. Make added entries under the headings for the others’.

 

More than three corporate bodies and principal responsibility not indicated

 

AACR-2R Rule 21.6C2 prescribes that ‘if responsibility is shared among more than three persons or corporate bodies and principal responsibility is not attributed to any one, two or three, enter under title. Make an added entry under the heading for the first person or corporate body named’.

 

4. Rendering of Heading of Institution and its organs

 

4.1 Rules of CCC Name of Shortest Form

Rule JD1 prescribes that ‘the name to be used in rendering the name of an institution is to be the one in the shortest form found in the

 

1. Title page; or

2.Half title page; or

3. Any other part of the document’.

 

Language of the Name

 

Rule of JD11 prescribes that ‘if the name of the institution occurs in two or more languages, the name in the language occurring earliest in the scale of language of the library is to be used for rendering’.

 

Initial Articles

 

Rule JD12 prescribes that ‘in rendering the name of in institution, the initial article is to be omitted’.

 

Honorific Word

 

Rule JD13 prescribes that ‘in rendering the name of an institution, every honorific word, not forming an inseparable part of the name, is to be omitted, if found either at the beginning or at the end, or in any other position in the name’.

 

Numeral at the Beginning

 

Rule JD15 prescribes that ‘in rendering the name of an institution beginning with numeral figure, the numeral is to be spelt out in the language of the rest of the words in the name of institution’.

 

Example

 

LIBRARY (Twenty Sixth January Memorial-) and not 26th JANUARY MEMORIAL LIBRARY.

 

Entry Element

 

Rule JD17* prescribes that ‘the entry element in the name of an institution in the heading of any entry is to consist of the word or word-group denoting the subject or any other speciality forming the purview of the institution, in its singular nominative form’.

 

Secondary Element

 

Rule JD171* prescribes that ‘the secondary element in the heading is to consists of the rest of the word(s) occurring in the name of the institution written in the sequence of their occurrence in it’.

 

Use of Dash

 

Rule JD172* prescribes that ‘if the word or word group forming the entry element occurs in any position other than the first in the name of the institution, its place should be indicated by a dash(–) among the words of the secondary element’.

 

Name of a University etc

 

Rule JD175* prescribes that ‘provided that Rule JD17* is not applicable in the case of the name of a university, college, school, laboratory, library, museum, and any similar traditional institution, the entry element should respectively be ‘University’, etc. The secondary element is to be rendered in accordance with Rule JD171*’.

 

Individualizing Element

 

Rule JD2 prescribes that ‘if the bare name of an institution does not individualize it, the individualizing element to be used for resolving the homonym is to be the term denoting its.

 

1. Place, if it is a localized institution;

2.Country, if it has a national status;

3.Constituent state, country, district, taluk, etc if it is a state, country, district, taluk etc. institution; and

4.Headquarters, if it cannot be individualized conveniently by any of the term mention in 1,2 and 3 above.

 

Example

 

1. UNIVERSITY GRANTS (Commission) (India).

2. LIBRARY (National-).

 

Year of Foundation

 

Rule JD21 prescribes that ‘if the individualizing element prescribes in Rule JD2 and/or the presence of the name of a place or of a person as an integral part of the name of the institution does not completely resolve the homonym, the year of foundation of the institution is to be used as a second individualizing element.

 

Example

 

1. LIBRARY (Public-) (Ajmer) (1951).

2.LIBRARY (Public-) (Ajmer) (1995).

 

Rendering of Organ of Institution

 

Rule JD3 prescribes that ‘the rendering of the organ of an institution will be on the analogy of organ of government’.

 

Example

 

1. LIBRARY (Indian-Association), CATALOGUING (Division).

 

Head of the Institution

 

The rendering of the name of the head of institution, used as second heading, is to be provided with the name of the occupant of the office as an individualizing element.

 

Example

 

UNIVERSITY (of Rajasthan), VICE-CHANCELLOR (Iqbal Narain).

 

 

Administrative Organ

 

The entry element in the name of an administrative department of an institution is to be the word or the word group denoting its sphere of work. The other words in the name of the administrative department are to be deem to form secondary element.

 

Example

 

UNIVERSITY (of Delhi), HINDI (Department of-).

 

Temporary Organ of Institution

 

The entry element in the name of a temporary organ of an institution is to be rendered as that of administrative department. However the year of formation of temporary organ is to be added as first individualizing element and the name of its chairman is to be added within circular brackets as second individualizing element.

 

Example

 

INDIA, FINANCE (Commission) (1951) (Chairman: Kashitish Chandra Neogy).

 

Related Institution

 

Rule JF4 prescribes that the name of an institution is to be rendered as if it were an organ of a parent body or as an independent corporate body.

 

Example

 

Documentation Research and Training Centre (DRTC), Bangaluru is organ of its parent body BSI, but it is engaged in research and has an independent status, hence it will be rendered as DOCUMENTATION RESEARCH AND TRAINING (Centre) (Bangaluru).

 

Joint Committees, Commissions etc

 

Rule JD38 prescribes that in the case of common organ set up jointly by two or more institutions, its name is to be preceded by the names of institutions setting it up, and a conjunction is to connect them. It will be rendered as follows:

 

Example

 

LABOUR (International–Organization) and HEALTH (World–Organization), OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH (Joint Committee on-).

 

Change in the name

 

Rule JD5 prescribes that ‘change in the name of an institution is looked after by the Canon of Ascertainability and rules on cross reference index entry’.

 

Example

 

UNIVERSITY (of Rajputana).

See

UNIVERSITY (of Rajasthan).

 

4.2 Rules of AACR-2R

 

General Rule

 

Rules 24.1A: Enter a corporate body directly under the name by which it is commonly identified, except when the rules that follow provide for entering it under the name of a higher or related body (see 24.13).

 

Change of name

 

24.1C1: If the name of a corporate body has changed (including change from one language to another), establish a new heading under the new name for item appearing under the name. Refer from the old heading to the new and from the new heading to the old (see 26.3C).

 

Example

 

University of Rajasthan was earlier known as University of Rajaputana. The Heading will be under the University of Rajasthan and reference will be prepared as follows

 

University of Rajputana.

see University of Rajasthan.

 

Name of the body in different languages

 

Rule No. 24.3A1: If the name appears in different languages, use the form in the official language of the body.If there is more than one official language and one of these is English, use the English form.

 

Example

 

Canadian Committee on Cataloguing not Comittee Canadian catalogage.

 

If the English is not one of the official languages or if the official language is not known, use the form in the languages used predominantly in items issued by the body:

 

In case of doubt, use the English, French, German, Spanish or Russian form, on this order of preference. If there is no form in any of these languages, use the form in the language that comes first in English alphabetic order. Refer from forms in other languages.

 

Language of International bodies

 

Rule No. 24.3B1: If the name of the international body appears in English on item issued by it, use the English form. In other cases, follow the instructions in 24.3A.

 

Example

    not Arab League

Union des etats arabes

 

Conventional name of body

 

Rule No. 24.3C1: If a body is frequently identified by a conventional form of name in reference sources in its own language, use this conventional name.

 

Westminster Abbey not

Collegiate Church of St. Peter in Westminster

 

Variant forms of the name of corporate body

 

AACR-2R Rule 24.2B prescribes that ‘if variant forms of the name are found in items issued by the body, use the name as it appears in the chief sources of information as opposed to forms found elsewhere in the items’.

 

Use of name of Institution as Individualizing Element

 

AACR-2R Rule 24.4C7 prescribes that ‘add the name of institution instead of the local place name if the institution’s name is commonly associated with the name of the body. Give the name of the institution in the form and language used for is as a heading’.

 

Example

 

not Delhi School of Economics (University of Delhi)

Delhi School of Economics (Delhi).

 

Year of Foundation as Individualizing Element

 

Rule 24.4C8 prescribes that ‘if the name has been used by two or more bodies that cannot be distinguished by place, add the year of founding or the inclusive years or existence’.

 

Example

 

Scientific Society of San Antonio (1892-1894).

Scientific Society of San Antonio (1904-    ).

 

Omission of Initial Articles

 

AACR-2R Rule 24.5A prescribes that ‘omit an initial article unless the heading is to file under the article (e.g. a corporate name that begins with an article that is the first part of the name of person or place)’.

 

Example

 

not Library Association

The Library Association

 

Omission of Citations of Honours

 

Rule 24.5B1 prescribes to ‘omit a phrase citing an honour or order awarded to the body’.

 

Example

 

Ranganathan Memorial Library (Bangaluru)

not Padmashri Ranganathan Memorial Library (Bangaluru).

 

Subordinate and Related bodies entered subordinately

 

AACR-2R Rule 24.13A prescribes to ‘enter a subordinate or related body as a subheading of the name of body to which it is following types. Make a direct or indirect subheading as instructed in 24.14’.

Type 1 University of Rajasthan. Department of Hindi.
Type 2 Indian Library Association. Committee on Public Libraries.
Type 3 American Dental Association. Research Institute.
Type 4 British Library. Collection Development.
Type 5 University of London. School of Pharmacy.
Type 6 University of Rajasthan. Library.

 

(Name: University of Rajasthan Library)

 

Subordinate or Indirect subheading

 

Rule 24.14A prescribes that ‘enter a body belonging to one or more of the types listed in 24.13 as a subheading of the lowest element in the hierarchy that is entered under its own name. Omit intervening elements in the hierarchy unless the name of the subordinate or related body has been, or is likely to be, used by another body entered under the name of the same higher or related body. In that case, interpose the name of the lowest element in the hierarchy that will distinguish between the bodies:

 

Example

 

Indian Library Association, Technical Services Division,

Cataloguing Section, Bye Laws Committee Will be rendered as

Indian Library Association. Cataloguing Section. Bye Laws Committee.

 

Joint Committees, Commissions etc.

 

AACR Rule 24.15A prescribes that ‘enter a body made up of representatives of two or more other bodies directly under its own name’.

 

Example

 

Joint Committee on Individual Efficiency in Industry (A Joint Committee of the Department of Scientific and Industrial Research and the Medical Research Council).

Omit the names of the parent bodies when these occur within or at the end of the name and it the name of the joint unit is distinctive without them.

 

Joint Committee on Library Education.

 

(Name: Joint Committee of Indian Library Association and Indian Association of Special Libraries and Information Centers).

 

AACR-2R Rule 24.15B prescribes that ‘if the parent bodies are entered as subheadings of a common higher body, enter the joint unit as a subordinate body as instructed in 24.12-14.14’.

 

Example

 

American Library Association. Joint Committee to Compile a List of International Subscription Agents (A joint committee of the Acquisitions and Serials sections of the American Library Association’s Resources and Technical Services Division).

 

References

 

AACR-2R Rule No. 26.3 prescribes to refer from a name used by a body, or found in reference sources, that is significantly different from that used in heading for that body’.

 

Example

 

Jaipur Museum

 

not   Albert Hall Museum (Jaipur)

 

AACR-2R Rule No. 26.3A4 Initials: This rule prescribes that ‘if a heading consists of an initialism or acronym and, in the catalogue, initials with full stops are filed differently from those without full stops, refer from one form to other, depending on which has been used in the heading’.

 

Example

 

U.N.E.S.C.O.

see Unesco

 

In the context of such a catalogue, optionally refer from initials without full stops, as well as with full stops, to a full named used as a heading.

 

Example

 

N.A.T.O.

see North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

NATO

see North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

Note: CCC Rules marked with* (asterisk) are from the Cataloguing practice, Ed 2 by S R Ranganathan.

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Further Readings

  1. Anglo-American Cataloguing Rules. 2nd ed 1988 revision. Ottawa: Canadian Library Association, 1988.
  2. Ranganathan, S.R. Classified catalogue code with additional rules for dictionary catalogue code. 5th ed. Bombay: Asia Publishing House, 1983.
  3. Ranganathan, S.R. Cataloguing practice. 2nd ed. Bombay: Asia Publishing House, 1974.