epgp books





Objectives of the Module


Objectives of the module are as follows:


1.      To define Composite book and discuss its various types.

2.      To define Ordinary Composite book and Artificial Composite book.

3.      To discuss the rules of CCC & AACR-2R to catalogue Ordinary Composite book and Artificial composite book.




Composite book, Composite work, Ordinary composite book, Artificial composite book, Collection without collective title, Collection produced under editorial direction.


Structure of Module: E-Text


1. Introduction

2. Definition and types of Composite book

3. Ordinary composite book in CCC & AACR-2R

3.1 Definition

3.2 Treatment in CCC

3.3 Treatment in AACR-2R

4. Artificial composite book in CCC and AACR-2R

4.1 Definition

4.2 Treatment in CCC

4.3 Treatment in AACR-2R

4.3.1   Works issued together by the publisher

4.3.2   Works bound together by the library.

5. Questions

6. Further Readings




Most of the books acquired in libraries are simple books, i.e. books written by single personal author, books of shared responsibility, books written under pseudonyms, corporate authorship etc. But some book are of Composite nature i.e. editorial or compiled works or two or more book broughout under one cover either by publisher or bound together by library purposely or by mistake. Such books are known as Composite books.


2. Definition and Types of Composite Book


According to CCC, the concept of ‘Composite book’ revolves round the statement of its definition putforth under Rule No. FF4 i.e. ‘Book with two or more contributions, each with its own title, not forming a continuous exposition and often, though not necessarily, by different authors’. Harrod’s Librarians’ glossary defines composite book as ‘a book of composite nature, where an editor has brought together several works by different authors into one volume’.


AACR-2R has not defined composite book as has been defined by CCC, but its definition of collection includes the concept to some extent i.e. ‘1. Three or more independent works or parts of works by one author published together. 2. Two or more independent works or parts of works by more than one author published together and not written for the same occasion or for the publication in hand’.


CCC divides composite books into following two types:


1.      Ordinary composite book.

2.      Artificial composite book.


According or AACR-2R composite books can be divided into following three types:


1.      Ordinary composite books i.e. works produced under editorial direction with a collective title.

2.      Artificial composite book type 1: Works without a collective title.

3.      Artificial composite book type 2: Two or more works published together without a collective title under common title page giving information of all the works or two or more works are bound together by the library.


3. Ordinary Composite Book in CCC and AACR-2R


3.1 Definition


‘Composite book provided with a single generic title to denote all the contributions collectively viz collection, festschrift, song book, symposium etc.’ Examples are Documentation and its facets, Library Science today, March of Library Science etc. (CCC Rule FF41).


As usual AACR-2R has not defined Ordinary composite book. However AACR-2R Rule No. 21.7 A and B Collections and works produced under editorial direction and a work with collective title covers such books.


Festschrifts are published in honour or in memory of a distinguished persons, often by students and colleagues of a person. It may also honour an institution or society especially on the occasion or an anniversary. As these are brought out under editorial direction, both CCC and AACR-2R treats such book as ordinary composite book.

 3.2         Treatment in CCC


CCC   treats the Ordinary composite book as a separate type of book and provides separate rules for choice and rendering according to the nature of the book. The main entry for an Ordinary composite book is prepared in the same way as it is prepared for a simple book, ignoring the names of contributors which figure in index entries only. As the book consists of separate independent contributions, it has the provision of special types of added entries to bring out each contribution to the attention of the readers (Rule No. NA3). It does so by providing Special CRE, Ordinary CRE, Chain CRE, author analytical, title analytical etc.


Usually Ordinary composite books are produced under an editorship or compilership. The editor/compiler is then taken to be the author. In case there is no editor and there is only an author, and the book consists of his different contributions on different topics by the same author, then it is entered under the same author.


Ordinary composite book can be studied with an illustration:


Title Page


Applied physics

Edited by Karl T. Compton,

London, Little, Brown & Co, 1948.


Other information


Edition 2.                          Accession No. 5173                     Size 22.1 cm.


Call No. A   N98            Pages xi, 456                                The book is illustrated Illus.


H.T.P.: Science in World War II, Number VII.


The book contains the following 3 contributions:


1.    Electronics by C.G. Suits. Ed by George R. Harrison. Class Number D65 P 1-195.

2.   Optics by H. Crick Stephenson. Class Number MC5   P 199-303.

3.   Metallurgy by Louis Jordon. Class Number F191         P 307-456.


Note: – In contribution 1 page 181-195 are devoted to Radio with Class Number D65,43.


This fact is also to be highlighted.


This is a case of Ordinary composite book. There is one generic title and an editor. It has 3 distinct contributions by 3 separate authors. Readers can be well served if their approach by the author of each contribution and specific subject of each contribution is satisfied by the catalogue.


Main Entry


The main entry of an Ordinary composite book and an ordinary book is the same, but the difference lies in the treatment of added entries.

Cross Reference Entries


In the case of Ordinary composite book, 2 types of Cross reference entries are prepared:


(i)     Special CRE: In this case to bring the subject of each contribution of the book to the notice of the readers, 3 Special CRE’s are prepared as per Rule No. NA21* as illustrated below:


In the same way, 2 more Special CRE’s will be prepared.

(ii)   Chain CRE: To highlight the subject dealt in pages 181-195 as per Rule No. NA22* the following Chain CRE will be prepared:

Book Index Entries


In Ordinary composite book, Book Index Entries for author, collaborator, title and series are to be given as usual.

Contributor Index Entries or Author Analyticals:


To satisfy the author and collaborator approach, as per rule No. NA62* and NA63* of CCC, Book Index Entries will also be given for each of the contributor and collaborator to contributor except in case of encyclopedias and memorial volumes.



Title Analyticals


In this case there is no need of preparing title analyticals as they are not fanciful.

However for the sake of illustration purpose it is given below:




Festschrifts or memorial volumes are issued in the honour of persons or institutions, viz Library Science Today and Golden Jubilee Volume of Indian Library Association. In a festschrift, a number of articles are contributed by various authors and edited by one or more editors. Hence in CCC it is treated as an Ordinary composite book. The main entry is the same as that of an Ordinary composite book. However as per Rule No. NA7 and NA71 two additional Book Index Entries are prepared:


(i) Festschrift Index Entry


As per Rule No. NA7, a festschrift is to be given a Book Index Entry consisting of the word FESTSCHRIFT written in capitals in the leading section, Name of person or institution in full in second section and Index number in pencil in third section.


The Leading section consists of the name of the dedicatee. The Second section consists of the term FESTSCHRIFT in capital letters. The third section consists of Index Number in pencil.


3.3         Treatment in AACR-2R


AACR-2R does not give any definition of an Ordinary composite book and there are no separate distinct and compact rules. It deals them under Rule No. 21.7B (Collection with collective title).


Collections with collective title are always entered under the title with an added entry for editor or compiler. According to Rule No. 21.7B, the above work will be entered under the title. The main entry will be prepared using a Hanging Indention with usual sections as in the case of simple books, except in the note section where under contents or partial contents, it indicates the constituent parts, under contents which is arranged in a single para within each item, the sequence will always be e.g. Contents: Title slash and the author(s) name upto 3 authors. Between 2 titles of constituents a dash is given according to Rule No. 2.7B18. For example:

Added entries


For added entries in Unit card system, AACR-2R instructs to make entries as usual. In addition, if there are not more than 3 authors, it suggests to make added entries-subject, author and title analysticals. If there are more than three contributions or independent works but only two or three contributors, make an added entry under the heading for each contributor. However if there are more than three contributors and they are named in the chief source of information, make an added entry under the first named contributor.

Subject, author and title analyticals are prepared as follows:


Subject Analytical-1


Where unit card is not in practice, or when direct access to the part is wanted without creating an additional bibliographic record for the part, separate Analysical added entries are prepared as per Rule No. 13.5 of AACR-2R.

On the same pattern other subject and author analytical will be prepared.


There is no special provision for Festschrifts in AACR-2. These will be dealt as per Rule No. 21.7B. A note is given to specify that it is a festschrift. Rule No. 21.30F prescribes to make an added entry under the heading for a person/institution honoured by a festschrift. There is no equivalent provision for Chain CRE of CCC.


4.                  Artificial Composite Book


4.1         Definition in CCC and AACR-2R


Artificial composite book has been defined by the author of CCC as ‘Composite book without a generic title to denote all contribution collectively’. Dr Ranganathan further clarifies that an Artificial composite book may be created by the publisher by issuing two or more different books within one and the same cover but without a common title page. It may also be created by the library by binding several books together into a single volume. (Rule No. FF42).


The AACR-2R has not recognized the concept of a Composite book as clearly as by


CCC.  To some extent the term ‘Collection’ indicates this concept. Its Rule No. 21.7C without collective title can be deemed to have an inherent concept of Ordinary composite book and Artificial composite book respectively.


There is a clear definition of Artificial composite book in CCC. In AACR-2R there is no specific definition. However in AACR-2R, there are separate rules under collection. Rule No. 21.7C Collection without collective title deals with the choice and Rule No. 2.7B21 deals with description. CCC deals it in Chapter NB. Both the codes have given due treatment and due justice so far as the choice and rendering of each constituent parts of Artificial composite book is concerned.


4.2         Treatment in CCC


CCC     prescribes that the main entry of an Artificial composite book is to be constructed as if it were the main entry of the first constituent work. According to CCC constituent contributions occurring in an Artificial composite book are independent documents and should get separate main entry when they occur separately. But when they are issued or bound together, only one main entry under the first constituent work would be prepared. A section for each later constituent work will be added in the main entry. Further the descriptive term ‘Composite book’ will be added after the Call Number at the end of the leading section.

Artificial composite book can be well studied by a concrete example:


Title Page


Peripatus by Adam Sedgwick

Myriopods by F.G. Sinclair

Insects by David Sharp


Macmillan & Co Ltd, 1922

H.T.P.: The Cambridge Natural History. Edited by S.F. Harmer and A.E. Shipley. Vol. V

Special Cross Reference Entry


To satisfy the subject approach of all the 3 parts or constituents works, one special


CRE for each will be prepared as per Rule No. NB21* as illustrated below:



On the same pattern one more Special CRE will be prepared for 3rd work.


Class Index Entry


CIE’s are made under all headings represented by each of the sought links of the chain derived from the class numbers of the Main entry, Special CRE and Ordinary CRE.


Book Index Entries


To satisfy author approach of 2nd or other constituent works author analytical will be prepared in additions to usual Book index entries, i.e. Author, Collaborator, Title and Series. Author and title analytical are prepared as per Rule No. N85* as illustrated below:-

4.3         Treatment in AACR-2RAACR-2R recognizes 2 types of Artificial composite book:1.      Works issued together by the publisher2.      Works bound together by the library4.3.1   Works issued together by the Publisher

If two works are issued together by the publisher together in one cover, lacking a collective title, with no one work predominating then we can make one entry for the item. AACR-2R Rule No. 21.7C prescribes that such publication will be entered under the heading appropriate to the first work or contribution named in the chief source of information. The subsequent works will be mentioned after a full stop with 2 spaces (Rule No. 1.1G2). Since the imprint and collation will be the same for all other works, they will be mentioned as usual. Added entries for editors/compilers and for the other works or contribution will be made as per instructions of Rule No. 21.7B.



Added Entries


Besides the added entries for the first work i.e. Specific Subject, Title, Joint authors, collaborators etc. analytical entries for subject, author and title for the second and other works if any will be prepared.




On the above pattern Subject, Author, Title analytical entries for the 3rd work will also be prepared.


4.3.2    Works Bound Together by the Library


If two works are bound together by the library, lacking a collective title, with no one work predominating, then we can prepare two main entries for the items. In the main entry for the first work, the description of the second work can be given as a ‘With’ note, beginning With: listing the other separately titled part of the item in the order in which they appear (AACR-2R Rule No. 2.7B21). In the main entry for the second work, the description of the first work can be given as a ‘With note’ as described above. This phenomenon can be understood with the help of the following example:

Title Page


Pure Theory of Foreign Trade


Alfred Marshal

Macmillan & Co.,

London, 1930




In recording With note, as per ammended rule in Cataloguing Service Bulletin, No. 22 Fall 1983, P. 20, punctuations except period-space-dash-space between areas are used. All the added entries i.e. Subject, collaborator, title series etc will be prepared for both the books separately.



Note  :-    Rule   numbers   prefixed   by   *   are   from   Cataloguing   practice   by   S.R.


Ranganathan. Ed. 2.

you can view video on COMPOSITE BOOKS IN CCC AND AACR-2R


Further Readings


  1. Anglo American Cataloguing Rules, 2nd ed. 1988 revision. Ottawa: Canadian Library Association, 1988.
  2. Bansal, G.C. and M. Bansal. Ordinary Composite Book or Collection with collective title: Comparison of treatment in CCC and AACR.
  3. Kaula, Namita. Cataloguing of festschrift volumes. Herald of Library Science. 17 (4), 1978, 201-205.
  4. Ranganathan, S.R. Classified catalogue code with additional rules for dictionary catalogue code. 5th ed. Bombay, Asia Publishing House, 1963.
  5. Ranganathan, S.R. and G. Bhattacharya. Cataloguing practice. 2nd ed. Bombay: Asia Publishing House, 1974.