Citation Index and Analysis Databases

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 1. INTRODUCTION

 

A citation index basically consists of a bibliographical database, an index of citations between publications which allow the user to easily establish which later documents have cited which earlier documents. As research is a continuous process, citations establish a link with prior research which has taken place in a particular field. Citations have emerged as strong areas of information for social scientists as they allow them to understand the pattern of research. Citation indexes further enable social scientists to establish the value of a research paper based upon their total number of citations by subsequent researchers.

 

According to Wikipedia the first citation indices were legal citators such as Shepard’s Citations (1873). In 1960, Eugene Garfield’s Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) introduced the first citation index for papers published in academic journals, first the Science Citation Index (SCI), and later the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) and the Arts and Humanities Citation Index (AHCI). The first automated citation indexing was done by Cite Seer in 1997. Other sources for such data include Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar.

 

1.1 Citation Analysis

 

Citation analysis allows to analyse a citation on different parameters. Citation analysis is the examination of the frequency, patterns, and graphs of citations in articles and books. It uses citations in scholarly works to establish links to other works or other researchers. Citation analysis is one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics. For example, bibliographic coupling and co-citation are association measures based on citation analysis (shared citations or shared references).

 

Automated citation indexing has changed the nature of citation analysis research, allowing millions of citations to be analyzed for large-scale patterns and knowledge discovery.

 

Today citation analysis tools are easily available to compute various impact measures for scholars based on data from citation indices. Web of Science, Scopus and Google allow complete analysis of citation and generate a variety of data which helps a researcher to understand the importance of a research work. These tools also generate the impact factor of a scholarly journal on the basis of number of times its papers have been cited by other scholars and researchers. Database like Web of Science and Scopus also provide links to the full text of the citing papers and can be accessed by the researchers if same are subscribed by their institutions.

 

Citation analysis also allows a researcher to know the research output of a particular institution, the subject areas covered and their yearly growth. It also enables a researcher to know about funding agencies, collaboration among authors, number self –citations and kind of document in which research has appeared.

 

1.2 Need for Citations

 

Citations are important to establish both authenticity and credibility of research and necessary to acknowledge the source of research material. Automated citation indexing has changed the nature of citation analysis research, allowing millions of citations to be analyzed for large-scale patterns and knowledge discovery.

 

2. Citation Importance

 

Citations have emerged as strong areas of information for social scientists as they allow them to understand the pattern of research. Citation indexes further enable social scientists to establish the value of a research paper based upon their total number of citations by subsequent researchers.Citation analysis also allows a researcher to know the research output of a particular institution, the subject areas covered and their yearly growth. It also enables a researcher to know about funding agencies, collaboration among authors, number self –citations and kind of document in which research has appeared.

 

2.1 Citation Analysis Databases

 

Some of the important citation analysis databases available commercially are as under:

 

i. Web of Science

ii. Scopus

iii. Google Scholar

 

2.2 Web of Science:

 

Web of Science ® provides researchers, administrators, faculty, and students with quick, powerful access to the world’s leading citation databases. Authoritative, multidisciplinary content covers over 12,000 of the highest impact journals worldwide, including Open Access journals and over 150,000 conference proceedings.  The current and retrospective coverage in the sciences, social sciences, arts, and humanities is since 1900.

 

1. With Web of Science we can find high-impact articles and conference proceedings.

2. Uncover relevant results in related fields.

3. Discover emerging trends that help you pursue successful research and grant acquisition.

4. Identify potential collaborators with significant citation records.

5. Integrate searching, writing, and bibliography creation into one streamlined process

 

We can use the Web of Science database (composed of Science Citation Index Expanded, Social Sciences Citation Index, and Arts & Humanities Citation Index) to find the citation count for a specific article.

 

To use Web of Science, follow these steps:

 

1.Visit the http://thomsonreuters.com/products_services/science/science_products/a-z/web_of_science/. Click

“Go.”

 

 

 

2.  A direct link to Web of Science will be at the top of your search results: click that link to enter the database, then click on “Cited Reference Search.”

 

 

 

3.   In Cited Reference Search, you will need to enter information about your article. For example, we could use Cited Reference Search to locate the following citation:

 

Leggett, Anthony J. The quantum measurement problem. Science v. 307, n. 5711, pp. 871-872, 2005.

 

 

4.  Cited Reference Search produces a list of articles. Some of the articles will not be what you want. Match the citation information to an article on the list. In this case, we know we are looking for an article by Leggett in volume 307 of Science, published in 2005. Place a check mark next to the correct article, and click “Finish Search.”

 

5. The final result is a list of articles that have cited the article:

 

 

 

2.3 Scopus

 

Scopus,a product of ElsevierInc. is the world’s largest abstract and citation database of peer-reviewed literature with smart tools that track, analyze and visualize research. Easy to use and comprehensive, Scopus is designed to quickly find the information researchers need. Tools to sort refine and quickly identify results help you focus on the outcome of your work. You can spend less time mastering databases and more time on research.

 

Scopus provides a citation count for a specific article. To use Scopus, follow these steps:

 

1. Visit Scopus at the http://www.info.sciverse.com/scopus/

 

3.When you get into Scopus, enter the information you have about the author or article for which you are searching. For example, we could search for the following:

 

Leggett, Anthony J. The quantum measurement problem. Science v. 307, n. 5711, pp. 871-872, 2005.

 

4.   Scopus tries to locate the article for which you are searching. Look at the record(s) Scopus produces to be sure that it has given you the correct article. Look to the right of the record for the number of times the article has been cited. Click on that number to see the list of articles that have cited the article for which you searched.

 

5. The final result is a list of articles that have cited the article.

 

 

2.4 Google Scholar

 

If you search for an article in Google Scholar, you can view both articles and book chapters that have cited a work. To useGoogle Scholar, follow these steps:

  • Visit Google Scholar at http://scholar.google.com. Google Scholar looks a lot like the regular Google interface. However, when you search Google Scholar, you are at the web address (http://scholar.google.com). When using Google Scholar, you are searching within a selection of journals and book titles.
  • Select “Advanced Scholar Search” to search for a specific article.

 

3.  Salient Feature of Citations

 

1. Citation analyses are easily available to compute various impact measures for scholars based on data from citation indices.

2. Web of Science, Scopus and Google allow complete analysis of citation and generate a variety of data which helps a researcher to understand the importance of a research work.

3. Citations also generate the impact factor of a scholarly journal on the basis of number of times its papers have been cited by other scholars and researchers.

4. Database like Web of Science and Scopus also provide links to the full text of the citing papers and can be accessed by the researchers if same are subscribed by their institutions.

5. Citation analysis also allows a researcher to know the research output of a particular institution, the subject areas covered and their yearly growth.

6. It also enables a researcher to know about funding agencies, collaboration among authors, number self – citations and kind of document in which research has appeared.

 

4.  TEXT FOR VOICE NARRATION

 

4.1 Role of Citations

 

A citation index consists of a bibliographical database, an index of citations between publications which allow the user to easily establish which later documents have cited which earlier documents.Citations have emerged as strong areas of information for social scientists as they allow them to understand the pattern of research. Citation indexes further enable social scientists to establish the value of a research paper based upon their total number of citations by subsequent researchers.According to Wikipedia the first citation indices were legal citators such as Shepard’s Citations (1873). In 1960, Eugene Garfield’s Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) introduced the first citation index for papers published in academic journals, first the Science Citation Index (SCI), and later the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI) and the Arts and Humanities Citation Index (AHCI). The first automated citation indexing was done by Cite Seer in 1997. Other sources for such data include Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar.

 

4.2 Need for Citations

 

Citation analysis allows to analyses a citation on different parameters. Citation analysis is the examination of the frequency, patterns, and graphs of citations in articles and books. It uses citations in scholarly works to establish links to other works or other researchers. Citation analysis is one of the most widely used methods of bibliometrics. For example, bibliographic coupling and co-citation are association measures based on citation analysis (shared citations or shared references).Automated citation indexing has changed the nature of citation analysis research, allowing millions of citations to be analyzed for large-scale patterns and knowledge discovery.

 

4.3 Issues for Consideration in Citations

 

Citations should consider the user to easily establish which later documents have cited which earlier documents. As research is a continuous process, citations establish a link with prior research which has taken place in a particular field. Citations have emerged as strong areas of information for social scientists as they allow them to understand the pattern of research. Citation indexes further enable social scientists to establish the value of a research paper based upon their total number of citations by subsequent researchers.

 

 

4.4 Citations formulation

 

Some of the important citation formulation databases available commercially are Web of Science, Scopus and Google Scholar.

 

5.  CHUNK TEXT

 

5.1 Role of Citations

 

  • Consists of a bibliographical database, an index of citations between publications which allow the user to easily establish which later documents have cited which earlier documents.
  • Emerged as strong areas of information for social scientists as they allow them to understand the pattern of research.
  • Enable social scientists to establish the value of a research paper based upon their total number of citations by subsequent researchers.

 

5.2 Need for Citations

  • To analyses a citation on different parameters.
  • It uses citations in scholarly works to establish links to other works or other researchers.
  • It is the most widely used methods of bibliometrics.
  • It has changed the nature of citation analysis research, allowing millions of citations to be analyzed for large-scale patterns and knowledge discovery.

 

5.3 Issues for Consideration in Citations

  • User to easily establish which later documents have cited which earlier documents. As research is a continuous process, citations establish a link with prior research which has taken place in a particular field.
  • To understand the pattern of research.
  • It enables social scientists to establish the value of a research paper based upon their total number of citations by subsequent researchers.

 

5.4 Citations formulation

  • Web of Science
  • Scopus
  • Google Scholar

 

5.5 Citations

  • Citation index basically consists of a bibliographical database, an index of citations between publications which allow the user to easily establish which later documents have cited which earlier documents.
  • Citations have emerged as strong areas of information for social scientists as they allow them to understand the pattern of research.
  • Citation indexes further enable social scientists to establish the value of a research paper based upon their total number of citations by subsequent researchers.

 

6. Conclusion

 

Thus it can be concluded that Citation Analysis databaseshave emergedas strong research tools and source of information for social scientist. These tools allow the scholars to link the ongoing research and also to know the quality of research by way of the number of citation a paper has received by subsequent researchers. On the basis of citations received, the impact factor of a publication is arrived at whichagain helps a researcher to identify quality journals and publications.

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7.  References: